Tag Archives: creative commons

Copyright vs. Creative Commons licenses

This week on Learning for Life Online, we’ll take a quick look at the idea of copyright, and how the idea of protecting your creative work has been changed by the internet.

What is Copyright?

In the United States, copyright exists to keep people from copying someone else’s work and either claiming it as their own work or making money from selling or licensing that work. There are exceptions for fair use for commentary, criticism, and research and educational purposes, but in general if something is protected by copyright, you can’t copy or reuse that content. Copyright was intended to protect the ability of writers, artists, filmmakers, and other creative professionals to make a living doing what they do.

The U.S. Copyright Office has a great Frequently Asked Questions page to explain the basics; you can also read the entirety of U.S. Copyright Law online. Students and teachers can learn more about copyright and education from the Library of Congress.

What is Public Domain

Creative works that are not under copyright are in the public domain. This means that it is okay to use or reuse any part or whole of that work however you’d like. Most texts or images created before 1923 in the United States are in the public domain and are freely available, but there are many rules about what is and isn’t in the public domain.

What is Creative Commons?

Making text, audio, video and photos available on the Internet has made it easier for creative professionals to share their work, and it also makes it easier to copy and reuse that work. Creative Commons is an organization created to find ways to let creative professionals maintain ownership of their work and give permission for others to use or remix that work in specific ways. They do this by writing up Creative Commons licenses – legal documents that spell out what other people can and can’t do with content. A creator putting their work up on the internet can choose which Creative Commons (CC) license they want to use, and link to it from wherever they’ve put their content. Then, if someone else wants to use that content, they can click through and read the license to know what’s okay.

To understand what CC licenses will and won’t allow, there are a few terms that need explaining. Flickr provides some good definitions:

  • Attribution means: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work – and derivative works based upon it – but only if they give you credit.
  • Noncommercial means: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work – and derivative works based upon it – but for noncommercial purposes only.
  • No Derivative Works means: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it.
  • Share Alike means: You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that you released your work under.

You can also watch and hear what Creative Commons means to creators in their own words. For more, check out an entire page of videos that explain Creative Commons and the Creative Commons Frequently Asked Questions page.

Why Does It Matter?

Why does all this matter?
Because ignoring copyright – using someone else’s protected work without their permission – is wrong and illegal in the U.S.
Because getting permission from creative professionals who want to give it should be easy and obvious, to encourage sharing and remixing whenever it’s allowed.
Because some excellent things come from sharing and remixing content online: music mashups combining different songs, video mashups that bring together different television and film snippets (for instance, an alternate ending to Back to the Future), tools like Tumblr and Scoop.It, and more.
Because as you learn how to live a life online, understanding these two points of view make it easy to be a respectful, ethical, law-abiding online resident. Whether you create content, reuse it, or simply enjoy it where it is, it helps to keep everyone on the same page – virtual or not.

Help & Resources

eBooks – Where to find them

In our last ebook post, let’s look at the many places to find ebooks online. Across the web, you can find ebooks for free and for pay, major bestsellers and independent works. Some authors give away ebooks and entice you to buy print, others charge for their ebooks and never print a page. You can find millions of digitized books from research collections around the world, or the latest from your favorite author. It’s all out there.

Through Your App

Whatever ereader or ereader app you’re using, there is a way to search for content directly through it. It might be as simple as using the search bar at the top of the screen, or it might take a little more doing.

Read through the instructions or manual for your device or app and find the section on Searching. Here are Help pages from a few of the more popular services:

Free on the Web

These are some of the many resources for finding free, often out-of-copyright books online.

  • Project Gutenberg is one of the oldest and most comprehensive sites for free ebooks online. In many ways, it has set the standard for public domain ebook sharing.
  • Overdrive is the downloadable media resource used by many public libraries around the country. This example is from the Boston Public Library, and you can look at your library’s website to see if they offer ebooks for download. You do need a library card for that library to download ebooks from them.
  • The Ebooks and Texts section of Archive.org. Includes out-of-copyright books from many research libraries worldwide.
  • OpenLibrary – an open, editable online library hoping to provide a web page for every book ever written.
  • GoogleBooks offers access to millions of books, either to preview or read entirely for free
  • WikiBooks is an open-content textbook collection
  • Authors like Cory Doctorow and James Boyle let readers download their ebooks for free. Find your favorite author’s website and see if they offer free excerpts or whole books there.
  • The Baen Free Library – a collection of free ebooks from science fiction and fantasy publisher Baen Books. The publisher of your favorite books may also offer some for free – check them out.

  • Many of the for-purchase sites listed below also offer free ebooks or free excerpts/samples. See if they have something you can try before you buy.

For Purchase on the Web

There are hundreds of other sources for ebooks and the easiest way to find a title you’re looking for is to search for that title plus “ebook” in your favorite search engine and see what comes up.

Next week, we’ll take a quick look at the idea of copyright, public domain and Creative Commons licenses on the web, and what that means for what you find to read, watch and listen to online.

Flickr and Online Photos – The Basics

Sharing your favorite photos has come a long way from vacation slide shows and sticky-paged photo albums. Web-based photo sites like Flickr will store your digital photos and other images online and let you arrange them for easy viewing, but there’s so much more you can do.

Atomic

What Is It?

Online photo hosting is just like online video hosting – people sign up for accounts and then upload their photos to store and share. Photos can be linked to individually or in sets; can be embedded into blogs and shared through social media; and can be searched by tags or any other information about the photo (like camera type or the date it was taken).

Photo hosting is different than the software you use to get your photos off of your digital camera. Those photos are still only available on your personal computer – you can then upload them to a sharing site to let others see them remotely. In addition, both Windows and Mac computers also provide photo sharing if you sign up for their online accounts. Also, many photo processing services offer some kind of online viewing: Kodak Gallery and Snapfish (Walgreens & Duane Reed) are just two examples.

How Is It Useful?

Storage and sharing: As we all know, emailing photos to friends and family one by one can be a real pain. By using an online photo hosting service, you can quickly upload your photos, set privacy levels (for public view or limited to only the people you send the link to), and then share your excellent photography with the world. Professional photographers and everyday snapshooters are obvious users of these tools, but so are libraries. The Boston Public Library is in the process of putting its collections of images online. NASA, the Smithsonian and the National Museum of American History all use Flickr to showcase fascinating images and rare objects too fragile to be put on display.

Search: If you’re looking for images to use for whatever purpose, try searching the public photos in any of the services below. Searching for “sunsets” in Flickr will find you some truly stunning photos. Photobucket has grouped their public photos into categories based on the image style or content, including effects like vintage, tilt shift and Holgas.

In Flickr, you can limit your search to Creative Commons licensed photos to comply with a photographer’s copyright when you use their image. Just use the Advanced Search and click on “Only search within Creative Commons-licensed content.”

Try It Out

Choose one of the photo sites below and run a few searches for things you enjoy. Try searching for a travel destination you’re eager to visit, or for your hometown.

  • Take a tour of Flickr’s features to see exactly how flexible this tool can be.
  • Google’s photo tool comes in two parts: Picasa is photo editing and organizing software you can download onto your computer, while Picasa Web Albums lets you store and share images online.
  • SmugMug is a paid photo-hosting service that provides more security and stability for a low annual fee.
  • Photobucket is a free site that targets bloggers and social networkers, with one-click posting and tons of special effects for your pics.
  • And, of course, there are many, many more to choose from.